Mar 17
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2010年3月13日(99艺术网,石棱)

今日下午三点,一个题为“寄居蟹”的摄影展在荔空间开幕。从黑白反转到数码彩印,从场景到观念,从日常记录到行为摆拍,所展作品的拍摄手法和主题跨度很大。据策展人之一任大棣的说法,所参展的20位艺术家,大多都不是专门做摄影的“职业艺术家”。

展览主题“寄居蟹”,是借对寄居蟹这种小生灵的生存方式进行寓义引申,来指喻摄影之由一门技术转变为一种艺术后,摄影对人——尤其是对摄影者生活方式和情感状态微妙而深远的影响。而从这次展览中,我们的确可以觉察到这种影响的痕迹:作为一种工具,相机和镜头本身并不重要,重要的是有了这种工具之后,人的洞察力开始具备一种“镜头感”;他的想象力在这种“镜头感”之下,开始到处弥漫。

随着摄影器材和电脑技术的普及,一群被称为“拍客”的摄影群体也蔚然兴起。拍摄技巧和艺术手法对他们来说,已经不算什么问题。这中间关键的一点是,拍客遍布生活的每一个角落,年轻而活跃的拍客们无所不至的视野和时常令人匪夷所思的念头,是否正在挑战传统“摄影家”甚或“艺术家”的身份?

当被问到为什么同为“寄居蟹”主题的展览,在草场地荔空间展出的是一批名不见经传的“拍客”们的作品、而在798视空间展出的却是荒木经惟、崔岫闻、 林天苗等“功成名就”的艺术家的作品的时候,任大棣解释说,这样做是为了突出一种对比,“荔空间举办这样一个摄影展的目的,在于提供一个实验场所,来展示中国当代摄影的另一种生态。”

作为“首届草场地摄影季”的单元展之一,本次展览将持续至4月25日结束。

Mar 15
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◎  王琅

年仅39岁的卡普斯恢复了宝丽来在荷兰恩斯赫德已废弃的工厂并签订了10年的租赁合同,带领着只有12人的影像专家小分队,着手在这栋1万平方米的厂房里花15个月为宝丽来经典相机研制新型Integral相纸。他们的目标是从2010年起大量投入生产,计划头一年的相纸产量为300万盒,第二年达1000万盒。

听说宝丽来得救了,赶快上网一探究竟,习惯性地给宝丽来摄影师艾尔莎·多夫曼(Elsa Dorfman)去信询问情况,10分钟后收到的回信仓促得连个称呼也没有就这样开头:“绝对是心灵感应,我信这个,我也正打算给你写信告诉你最新消息:一个奥地利人要在荷兰建工厂重新大规模生产相纸了!”

多夫曼提到的这个奥地利人名叫弗洛兰·卡普斯(Florian Kaps),是位在即时成像领域摸爬滚打了七八年的精明商人,胶片摄影的最大拥护者,同时也是位艺术家。2001年,他以Lomo社区(Lomographic Society)网络部主管的身份首次涉足胶片市场,几年后创建了最大的即时影像在线社区Polanoid.net。浏览一下网站,上传已达20万张的宝丽来图片库还真让1G的CPU有些吃不消,1.2万名注册用户的庞大“粉丝”团也在如火如荼地持续膨胀。去年2月,宝丽来公司(Polaroid Corporation)宣布将于2008年底前停止生产消费类及专业级的所有波拉底片并放弃其核心技术后,这位年仅39岁的卡普斯先生瞄准了新的商机。他恢复了宝丽来在荷兰恩斯赫德已废弃的工厂并签订了10年的租赁合同,用几百万欧元收购了十几台大型设备,带领着一个只有12人组成的影像专家小分队,给自己的“雄心壮志”取了个野心勃勃的名字——“不可能的计划”,着手在这栋1万平方米的厂房里花15个月为宝丽来经典相机研制新型Integral相纸。他们的目标是从2010年起大量投入生产,计划头一年的相纸产量为300万盒,第二年达1000万盒。

卡普斯在官网上一再强调,这不是一个重新生产旧相纸的计划,由于制作宝丽来相纸的化学试剂和原料早已断货,他们只能研制新的感光材料来生产新相纸。卡普斯对此却信心十足:“我们丝毫不担心新相纸在视觉和质量上会有什么问题,因为我们从没准备让它变得完美。宝丽来曾经花大价钱让胶片尽善尽美,这也许是导致停产的一个原因。宝丽来胶片应该永远是敏感的,冷的时候会微微发蓝,暖和了就泛点儿红,尤其是过期的相纸。人们开始刻意追求这种效果。”按卡普斯的话说,这新家伙还是那“甩一甩”就显影的宝丽来,你只要保留着合适的相机,它就绝对能用,升级换代的新相纸只会更经济、更方便。而谈到资金,他说自己有充足的钱来支持团队花一年的时间探索新技术。由此看来,我们都操之过急了,就连去年底在Taka Ishii画廊举办宝丽来纪念个展的森山大道也不例外。5月25日,为了对宝丽来的可能回归表示庆祝,《纽约时报》影像博客“镜头”向广大爱好者征集照片。两天的时间他们共收到900多张照片,并将大部分展示在网上。谁说宝丽来死了?且慢,还不到说再见的时候。

宝丽来公司由埃德文·兰德(Edwin Land),一位深具企业家创新精神的哈佛大学辍学生所创建。公司的雏形,是1932年兰德与维尔赖特(George Wheelwright)共同制作偏光镜的实验室。截至1936年,兰德已将他在光的偏振上的发明运用于各种产品,包括偏光护目太阳镜、立体眼镜、胶片和照明设备。1948年,他的公司推出第一款拍立得相机——兰德相机Model 95,据说这款当时售价89.75美元的相机,是因为女儿急切地想立刻看到家庭快照而触发了灵感。“二战”后,兰德将其在光学领域的研究转向了摄影,那时宝丽来的拍立得产品是马萨诸塞州工业制造业的主力,并在全世界享有盛名。1963年随着100系列相机的发布,宝丽来胶片改为暗盒胶片,成为专业摄影师的必备品,他们使用凹凸不平的宝丽来相纸测光和构图。60年代晚期到70年代,宝丽来公司的股份让它跻身“漂亮50”(Nifty Fifty)公司,其每股净收益在70年代的美国股票熊市中风景独好,人们长期持有它,相信它会永远涨下去。1972年是宝丽来的巅峰时刻,SX-70原型机的出现打造了一个奇迹。这款非常帅气的相机,铝和人造革搭配的机身,展开后的单眼镜头,自吐相纸,“刮片”功能,浓郁的蓝调,都让玩家爱不释手。同年6月,《时代》周刊上兰德手持SX-70相机的封面,对其诞生表示庆贺。1978年,公司雇用的员工达到2.1万名,在80年代初,拍立得摄影拥有20亿美元的市场,1991年,公司的收入达到30亿美元的顶峰。

兰德在1982年离开宝丽来。随后的专利战,80年代末花费大量精力去抵御恶意收购,不关注市场只潜心于研究,最终导致其负债累累。宝丽来不得不裁员,仅从几万名员工中留下150名管理与行政人员。随着数码大潮2001年的侵入,《Wired》杂志专门发表一篇长文,中肯地建议宝丽来公司可以在将来进行必要的改革。不料10个月后,宝丽来公司却向美国法院申请破产保护。

此时的宝丽来公司已是名存实亡。大部分的生意,包括“宝丽来”这一名称,已卖给Bank One旗下的OEP图像公司。随后,此公司更名为“Polaroid Holding Company”(宝丽来控股公司)并很快得到了宝丽来公司的品牌效应。2005年,这家公司最终被私人控股的Petters Group Worldwide收购。老的宝丽来公司,实际上还在美国《破产法》第11章的保护下而存在,没有任何资产,没有交易,没有员工,只是一纸合同上的空壳公司。去年10月,母公司PGW及其一家子公司因涉嫌欺诈而遭到调查,受其牵累,宝丽来被迫于12月再次向法院提出财务重整。今年4月,GBB公司(Gordon Brothers Brands,LLC)与清算公司HCC消费资本(Hilco Consumer Capital,L.P.)以8500万美元成功收购宝丽来公司。GBB、HCC表示将与多家全球企业合作持续开发宝丽来品牌商品。

事实上,宝丽来早就放弃了即时影像市场,将兴趣集中在数码领域,产品包括平面电视机和数码相机。作为调整,2002年,PGW开始出售授权“宝丽来”字样的DVD播放器和平面电视机。数码化过程中,宝丽来也一直没有放弃对他方接管相纸生产的希望。公司已经给其他相纸企业发出通告,希望他们中的一员能继续生产旧相纸。实际上,富士——早先争取接管生产宝丽来相纸的企业——曾经制造过4种类型的相纸,两种彩色、两种黑白,每种都可以在现有的宝丽来相机中使用。但这些相纸是对旧宝丽来相纸的模仿,还需要使用者撕掉粘满化学试剂的膜。富士发布了一款即拍即显的完整成像相纸——Instax,但这种相纸只能搭配富士相机使用,只是自家竞争且严格上说不在美国出售。

随后,他们又把希望寄托在数码打印机上。Zinc Imaging公司生产的冠名“Polaroid PoGo”的无线便携式打印机是最新的一款产品。这款打印机一改往日宝丽来相机的笨拙,体型纤小轻便,采用Zink的无墨打印技术,全彩色且1分钟内完全成像,能通过USB接口与数码相机或与手机无线蓝牙连接。

随着1900年柯达布朗尼相机的诞生,“你按快门,剩下留给我们”的傻瓜模式让摄影民主化成为大势所趋。宝丽来延续了此传统。几年时间,民主化模式持续走俏,效果显著,宝丽来相机一时间遍及家家户户:无论在家庭相册、墙上,还是网络上。从第一款相机推出起,宝丽来公司就受到了艺术家的广泛关注和青睐。兰德在1948年雇用安瑟尔·亚当斯(Ansel Adams)作为顾问,一些艺术家使用宝丽来相机测光和曝光,另一些,包括查克·克洛斯(Chuck Close)和安迪·沃霍尔(Andy Warhol)等,使用大画幅宝丽来相机创作肖像。威廉·韦格曼(William Wegman)和艾尔莎·多夫曼用Big Polaroid创作20×24影像;大卫·霍克尼(David Hockney)用几百张宝丽来拼贴成一幅完整的组合拼图。处理或转造感光乳剂的方式也颇为流行,包括“刮片”、乳剂剥离等,卢卡斯·萨马拉斯(Lucas Samaras)的“Photo-Transformations”是这一技法的开拓者。除此之外,《Memento》的电影海报、Talking Heads的专辑《More Songs about Buildings and Food》的封面都是用波拉片拍成的。荒木经惟和卡罗尔·莫里诺(Carlo Mollino)用宝丽来拍摄情欲照片,很好地运用了宝丽来的私密特性。1963年,臭名昭著的玛格丽特、阿盖尔公爵(Margaret,Duchess of Argyll)离婚案,一张张宝丽来照片成了“艳照门”事件的唯一证物——标志着宝丽来被用于司法举证。几十年后Spectra相机的问世,使宝丽来相机迅速运用到更广泛的地方。牙医、法医、勘探人员、警察、剧场专业人士等都曾是宝丽来相机的使用者。宝丽来照片在犯罪现场可以作为检验足迹的重要帮手,胶片的不可润饰性让犯罪现场的蛛丝马迹尽收“片”底。即便美国一些州的执法机构已经为向数码摄影的转变做好了准备,但仍有一些部门不愿放弃宝丽来。医生用宝丽来拍摄医疗影像,考古学家用便携式宝丽来与X光摄影结合,在不破坏现场的前提下勘察遗迹。

一代接一代革新的波拉片,在感光度、颜色上层层突破,显影速度缩短到60秒。它的魔力不仅在于胶片闪烁的白色表面色彩的神奇成真,还在于拍摄过程:“啪”地按下快门,在金属框里的橡胶管露出来,急速的摩擦,发出的声音像是摩托在发动,最后照片被吐出,小门猛地被关上。整个过程免去了传统摄影中的负片显影、漂白、定影、水洗等一系列繁杂的步骤,节约了时间和成本。数码摄影完全丢掉了后工业社会里对机械主义的缅怀,宝丽来把摄影让位给人,整个过程没有电流川息、数模转换,它更具体可见且难以驾驭。数码相机随意地按下快门,拍糟了,还有PS来做补救。而宝丽来只有仅此一张。确实,用宝丽来拍出一张好片子的确不易。把你的数码相机扔开一天,拿起SX-70,按现在淘宝网600相纸一盒150元算,你会发现自己曾经浪费了多少张15元的胶片!

1970年9月,一本名为《动物园动物医学》的刊物曾发表过一篇学术文章,称宝丽来相纸的银成分,毒死了美国路易斯维尔动物园的一只格利威斑马。按现在数码相机与即时成像相机100比1的销售比例看,按100多元一盒相纸的昂贵价格看,这年头,不幸落入动物园斑马馆的宝丽来胶片概率几乎为零。烧不起相纸的我们早就买了一款便宜的入门级单反,多年前入手的宝丽来相机已被束之高阁。没玩过宝丽来的人也不再容易有机会感受它的原汁原味和等待出片时翘首以盼的激动。当你翻开抽屉,看见蒙了层灰的SX-70还在,突然想起那位远在荷兰工厂埋头苦干的大救星卡普斯先生,于是,你端坐在电脑前,在键盘上敲入“不可能计划”的网址,看着屏幕右上角出现以“秒”为单位的倒计时数字,掰着指头从个位数到千万位,再耐着性子用计算器换算成几百“天”。大救星卡普斯先生,是靠你们每个人的信念支撑过活的梦想家。
Mar 9
《寄居蟹1号》“首届草场地摄影季”荔空间展

开幕:2010年3月13日(星期六)15: 00 - 18: 00
展地:北京朝阳区草场地红一号F座荔空间
展期:2010年3月13日至2010年4月25日
开放时间:星期二至星期日10: 30 - 18: 00
主办:北京荔空间文化艺术交流中心

艺术家:陈嘉强、陈维、陈洲+张晓静、邓大非、高峰、金石、刘波+李郁、马永峰、毛宇、OUR MAPS、彭韫、沈怡、石玩玩、王思顺、吴达新、赵华森、张乐华、张辽源
策展人:任大棣、邓大非
艺术总监:顾振清、杨荔
公共推广:姜天娇、郑玲妃
联络:jiangtianjiao2009@gmail.com; +86-10-51273272

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SOLDIER CRABⅠ
AN EXHIBITION OF THE FIRST ANNUAL CAOCHANGDI PHOTOSPRING
OPENING: SATURDAY, MAR. 13, 2010  15: 00 - 18: 00
VENUE: LI-SPACE, RED NO.1 - F BUILDING, CAOCHANGDI, CHAOYANG DISTRICT, 100015 BEIJING, CHINA.
DATES: MAR. 13, 2010 - APR. 25, 2010
GALLERY OPENING HOURS: TUESDAY - SUNDAY 10:30 - 18: 00
PRESENTED BY: BEIJING LI-SPACE CULTURE & ART CENTER

ARTISTS: CHEN KAKEONG, CHEN WEI, CHEN ZHOU+ZHANG XIAOJING, DENG DAFEI, GAO FENG, JIN SHI, LIU BO+LI YU, MA YONGFENG, MAO YU, OUR MAPS,  PENG YUN, SHEN YI, SHI WANWAN, WANG SISHUN, WU DAXIN, ZHAO HUASEN, ZHANG LEHUA, ZHANG LIAOYUAN
CURATOR: REN DADI, DENG DAFEI
ARTISTIC DIRECTOR: GU ZHENQING, YANG LI
PUBLIC PROMOTION: JIANG TIANJIAO, ZHENG LINGFEI
CONTACT US: jiangtianjiao2009@gmail.com; +86-10-51273272

《寄居蟹2号》当代摄影展
开幕:2010年3月13日(星期六)16: 30 - 18: 00
展地:北京市朝阳区酒仙桥路4号798艺术区视空间(常青画廊对面)
展期:2010年3月13日至2010年3月28日
开放时间:星期二至星期日10: 30 - 18: 00
主办:北京荔空间文化艺术交流中心

艺术家:荒木经惟、崔岫闻、何云昌、林天苗、刘铮、缪晓春、翁奋、王宁德、郑国谷
策展人:任大棣
艺术总监:顾振清、杨荔
公共推广:万舒
工程总监:陈豹
联络:jiangtianjiao2009@gmail.com; +86-10-59789542

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SOLDIER CRAB Ⅱ
AN EXHIBITION OF CONTEMPORARY PHOTOGRAPHY
OPENING: SATURDAY, MAR. 13, 2010  16: 30 - 18: 00
VENUE: VISUAL SPACE, 798 ART ZONE, NO.4 JIUXIANQIAO ROAD, CHAOYANG DISTRICT, 100015 BEIJING, CHINA (opposite to Galleriacotinua)
DATES: MAR. 13, 2010 - MAR. 28, 2010
GALLERY OPENING HOURS: TUESDAY - SUNDAY 10: 30 – 18: 00
PRESENTED BY: BEIJING LI-SPACE CULTURE & ART CENTER

ARTISTS: ARAKI NOBUYOSHI, CUI XIUWEN, HE YUNCHANG, LIN TIANMIAO, LIU ZHENG, MIAO XIAOCHUN, WENG FEN, WANG NINGDE, ZHENG GUOGU
CURATOR: REN DADI
ARTISTIC DIRECTOR: GU ZHENQING, YANG LI
PUBLIC PROMOTION: WAN SHU
CONSTRUCTION: CHEN BAO
CONTACT US: jiangtianjiao2009@gmail.com; +86-10-59789542

摄影的寄居蟹

顾振清

寄居蟹,甲壳纲,十足目,外形介于虾和蟹之间,属于甲壳类中异尾类的节肢动物。为了避难与自我保护,它寄居在空螺壳或一些中空的物体内。对寄居蟹而言,寄居其实是一种另类的蜗居行为,甚至是一种隐居态度。

寄居蟹的鼎鼎大名来自一些霸道的摸样,它挥舞大螯、小螯,似乎会吃掉海螺等软体动物的肉,再把人家的外壳占为己有而得来。其实,寄居蟹只是个具有环保概念的资源回收者,住的是贝类死后所遗留下的空壳。贝壳是海洋贝类生物与生俱来的硬基质良好的“经济适用房”。贝类死后,贝壳就成了遗弃之物。寄居蟹见到空壳,只是清扫一番便废物利用,把贝壳当作形影不离、难以割舍的家园。它从此背负着这个家园到处谋生。

寄居蟹是一种符号。对摄影而言,它具有比附的寓义。

摄影术原本是工业革命兴起之后发明家们兑现其发明激情的一个遗留之物、一个空壳,但是早期摄影师和一些艺术家心无芥蒂地寄居到里面。他们借助一种新兴的技术,催生了一门新兴的摄影艺术。相机和摄影术,虽然不是人们与生俱来的外壳。但是不少人一旦邂逅了相机和摄影术,就当作形影不离、难以割舍的精神家园。这莫非是一种寄居蟹式的社会文化行为?

对很多当代艺术家而言,他们玩摄影,主要是出于一种进取心,而不是为了避难与自我保护。艺术家住进了摄影这个“蜗居”,也就多了一个工具,磨砺自我的洞察力和想象力;同时也多了一件盾牌,捍卫自我在艺术边界上突破和超越的权利。有的人进得去,出得来。有的人进去了,出不来。摄影也就是一个外壳,可以成就一种生活方式。其实,它是一个极具包容性的躯壳,可以寄托和孕育艺术家的私人情感和主观思想。艺术家加载摄影这一媒介,就得接受或挑战摄影的游戏规则,其情感和思想就得或多或少地“寄居”在摄影图片所呈现的事物、符号和观念之中。艺术家可以就此加封为摄影家,背负上相机、摄影术及后期加工成像术所构成的坚硬的、并不轻松的外壳。

定格时间和空间形成了艺术家对摄影纪实本质的一种理解。但是,摄影术一旦深入到他们的价值系统、成为实现理想诉求的手段,摄影观念也就真的变身为他们一种外壳、一种家园。摄影作为一种被侵占的领域,被艺术家和政治艺术家极端的生活方式所附体,或是另存为另一个版本的时候,它呈现的可能性还有哪些?

当今的拍客一族无疑是艺术家、摄影家身份的一种稀释和泛化。他们把相机像手机那样常年揣在衣袋里,与自我身体捆绑。他们走到哪里,兴之所至就掏出来摁动快门。影像泛滥、读图时代等概念,在一定程度上,来自拍客一族在网上、纸本上不揣简陋地暴晒自己摄影经验,继而引发全球围观、传阅的社会文化行为。盲目的看与被看,这种潜藏在相机和摄影术之中的人类的集体无意识,就是一种根深蒂固的人性。

摄影成就的图像,其实早就“寄居”在机械复制和图像篡改技术的外壳之中,构成种种视觉欺骗。摄影构成了与现实、现实主体平行存在的一个虚拟世界。有时,现实流逝了,现实主体消亡了,其影像却留下来,成为后人怀旧并雕刻时光的素材。


Soldier Crab of Photography

by Gu Zhenqing

Soldier crab, a crustacean of the order Decapoda, in a shape midway between shrimp and crab, is categorized as arthropod of anomura. In order to seek asylum and protect itself, soldier crabs make a living in empty shells or hollow objects. To them, living in shells of others’ could be referred to as humble living in pigeonholes and could even be endowed with an attitude of seclusion.

Soldier crab’s life habit makes it a tenant who pays no rent. This great reputation comes from its arbitrary look, with big claws waving around clamoring for swallowing the meat of mollusks and occupying the shells to themselves. Actually, soldier crab is merely an environment-friendly resource recovery worker who lives in the empty shells abandoned by dead Mollusks. Shells are good-quality “economical housing” inherent to shellfish and after their death, the shells become relics. When soldier crabs found the empty shells, they would simply tidy them up, then make good use of these wastes and turn them into their inseparable home to be carried wherever they go.

Soldier crab is a symbol and when referred to photography, it delivers a message of analogue.

Photography used to be one abandoned shell for scientists and inventors after the Industrial Revolution. However, it was found by some early photographers and artists who came live in these shells just like what soldier crabs do. These people have actually boosted up a burgeoning new art form of photography in virtue of a new technology. Cameras and photography, although not inherent to human beings, but once encountered, becomes an inseparable spiritual home to many.

To many contemporary artists, photography is considered as a zero-rent housing. It was out of enterprise that they choose photography as the art medium but not out of seeking self-protection. Once artists move in this pigeonhole, they are blessed with a tool to sharpen their insight and to broaden their imagination and at the same time, they get for themselves a shield, a shield that defends the rights of breaking through and surpassing the boundary of art. Some people go in and go out with ease while some go in but never get out. Photography is merely a shell, but it changes one’s life style. An inclusive shell it actually is, which breeds private emotions of artists and their subjective thinking. When chose photography as the art medium, artists have to play by its rule and their emotions and thinking will be more or less expressed by the images and symbols that appeared in photos. By doing this, artists could be entitled photographers, and from now on they put on their shoulders a tough solid shell that is constituted by cameras, techniques and many professional procedures of making a photo that in all, made this shell not that easy to carry.

To stop time and to fix space became one way of approaching the essence of on-the-spot photography. However, when this chosen art medium really gets in the value system of artists and becomes their tool of reaching out for the ideal, the concept of photography turns for real to be the shell or rather home for artists. Photography, being an invaded domain by artists and possessed by their extreme life style, does it still have other possible way of presentation?

The new generation of shutterbugs nowadays is no doubt the diluted presence of artist and photographer. Camera to them is like cell phone to most of us, which is carried wherever they go whatever they do. Whenever the interest is aroused, they would simply pull out the camera and click. The came of the age of graphical information and the floods of images we see everyday everywhere are partly due to the socially cultural activity of these shutterbugs who enjoy exposing their works over all social media and arousing public interest. To see and be seen blindly, this collective unconsciousness hidden in the camera and photography reflects certain deep-rooted human nature.

The image produced by the medium of photography has long been sheltered in the shell of mechanic duplication and image perfection technology which could easily perpetrate visual cheating. Photography constitutes an artificial world that exists in parallel with reality and reality subject. Sometimes when reality goes by and reality subject dies away, the image of which stays along and becomes the elements that call up and sculpt old times.

Mar 9
积雨云 忘记你弯曲的假山
手摇动树枝 蜜蜂叮 风摇动树枝
石头呛着了自己

清醒如酒 搂柱子
等人等到天黑

青菜转动自己 树也举着很多叶子
做成饼干的标语
让游行变成游泳

牛奶在响 手在响 两个人在房间响

等糖从水里出来
给自己搭好三节电池

只有扒开土才找得到地铁

Mar 8
中国采用了我们的资本主义模式——我们将采用它的专制统治吗?

斯拉沃热·齐泽克

The explosion of capitalism in China has many Westerners asking when political democracy -- as the "natural" accompaniment of capitalism -- will emerge. But a closer look quickly dispels any such hope.

当资本主义在中国蓬勃发展的时候,很多西方的观察者都会问,政治上的民主(作为资本主义“自然伴随物”)何时才会到来。然而,当我们仔细看清中国的现状时,基本上很快就会打消这种希望。

Modern-day China is not an oriental-despotic distortion of capitalism, but rather the repetition of capitalism's development in Europe itself. In the early modern era, most European states were far from democratic. And if they were democratic (as was the case of the Netherlands during the 17th century), it was only a democracy of the propertied liberal elite, not of the workers. Conditions for capitalism were created and sustained by a brutal state dictatorship, very much like today's China. The state legalized violent expropriations of the common people, which turned them proletarian. The state then disciplined them, teaching them to conform to their new ancilliary role.

现代中国,并不是一个资本主义的东方专制的扭曲版本,而是一个欧洲资本主义自身发展的翻版。在近代早期,大部分的欧洲国家离民主还有一段距离。而且那时候,如果它们是民主国家的话(如17世纪荷兰的),也只不过是有财产的自由主义精英的民主,而不是工人的民主,而发展资本主义所需要的条件当时就是由野蛮粗暴的国家专断权力创造,并维持下去的。这一点,与今天的中国非常相似。过去,中国合法化了各种剥夺老百姓财产权的野蛮暴力,使普通老百姓成为了无产阶级,然后,国家再对其进行规训,教育他们去适应新的辅助型角色。

The features we identify today with liberal democracy and freedom (trade unions, universal vote, freedom of the press, etc.) are far from natural fruits of capitalism. The lower classes won them by waging long, difficult struggles throughout the 19th century. Recall the list of demands that Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels made in the conclusion of The Communist Manifesto. With the exception of the abolition of private property, most of them -- such as a progressive income tax, free public education and abolishing child labor -- are today widely accepted in "bourgeois" democracies, and all were gained as the result of popular struggles.

那些今天我们所熟知自由民主的特征(工会,普选,出版自由等)其实都远非是资本主义的自然结果。中下阶层在19世纪当中,通过发动长期而又艰苦的斗争才争取到这些权利。我们不妨回忆一下马克思和恩格斯在《共产党宣言》当中提出的那一系列的要求,除了要废除私有产权以外,大部分的这些要求——如累进所得税,免费的公共教育,禁止使用童工等——这些在今日的“资产阶级”民主当中经已被广泛采纳和接受的权利,实际上全都是普通老百姓一直以来斗争的结果。

So there is nothing exotic in today's China: It is merely repeating our own forgotten past. But what about the afterthought of some Western liberal critics who ask how much faster China's development would have been had the country grown within the context of a political democracy? The German-British philosopher Ralf Dahrendorf has linked the increasing distrust in democracy to the fact that, after every revolutionary change, the road to new prosperity leads through a "valley of tears." In other words, after the breakdown of state socialism, a country cannot immediately become a successful market economy. The limited -- but real -- socialist welfare and security have to be dismantled, and these first steps are necessary and painful. For Dahrendorf, this passage through the "valley of tears" lasts longer than the average period between democratic elections. As a result, the temptation is great for leaders of a democratic country to postpone difficult changes for short-term electoral gains.

所以,在今天中国也不例外:它只是在重复我们早已忘却的过去。然而,一些西方自由主义的批评者曾经提出疑问说假如中国进入到政治民主的状态时它的发展会可能会有多快,后来他们又是怎么想的呢?哲学家达伦多夫曾经把民主当中日益增长的不信任与以下的这个现实联系在一起:在每一次革命以后,通往新的繁荣之路都必须要经过一个“眼泪谷”。也就是说,在国家社会主义崩溃以后,一个国家是很难迅速地成为一个良好运作的市场经济体。那些有限的却又真实存在的社会福利以及保障将被迫先要清除,这些往前迈出第一步的行动都是必需的,同时也是痛苦的。达伦多夫说,穿越“眼泪谷”的这段旅程所花的时间往往比两次民主选举间的平均周期要长。因此,对于那些民主国家的领导人来说,就会受到某种诱惑,令他们推迟重大的改革,而谋求短期的选举收益。

In Western Europe, the move from welfare state to the new global economy has involved painful renunciations, less security and less guaranteed social care. In post-Communist nations, the economic results of this new democratic order have disappointed a large strata of the population, who, in the glorious days of 1989, equated democracy with the abundance of the Western consumerist societies. And now, 20 years later, when the abundance is still missing, they blame democracy itself.

在西欧,从福利国家迈向崭新的全球化经济时代的过程中,包含着痛苦的放弃,被减少的安全措施以及难以保证的社会保障。在那些后共产主义国家里面,新的民主秩序下的经济成果让社会当中的大多数阶层失望,这些阶层在1989年左右曾有某些辉煌岁月,当时,他们把民主与西方富饶的消费主义社会混为一谈。但如今,20年过去,被预期会出现的经济富庶却一直没有出现,于是这些阶层就转过头来去责怪民主。

Dahrendorf, however, fails to note the opposite temptation: The belief that, if the majority of a population resists structural changes in the economy, an enlightened elite should take power, even by non-democratic means, to lay the foundations for a truly stable democracy. Along these lines, Newsweek columnist Fareed Zakaria points out how democracy can only "catch on" in economically developed countries. He says that if developing countries are "prematurely democratized," then economic catastrophe and political despotism will soon follow. It's no wonder, then, that today's most economically successful developing countries (Taiwan, South Korea, Chile) have embraced full democracy only after a period of authoritarian rule.

然而,达伦多夫没有注意到另一种相反的诱惑:这种观点就是,假如大多数的民众拒绝经济上的结构性转型的话,那么那些较早觉悟的精英就应该去掌握公权力,即使是通过一种非民主的手段,从而为真正意义上稳定的民主打下基础。按照这种观点,新闻周刊专栏专家Fareed Zakaria为我们指出,民主是如何只在经济上的发展中国家里面得到理解的。他说,如果一个发展中国家处于“早熟的民主状态”,那么经济上的灾难和政治上的专断就会随之而来。所以,毫无疑问,今天经济上最成功的一些发展中国家和地区(台北省,南韩,智利),它们都在经历了一段威权主义统治以后,才获得充分发展的民主制度。

Isn't this line of reasoning the best argument for the Chinese way to capitalism as opposed to the Russian way? In Russia, after the collapse of Communism, the government adopted "shock therapy" and threw itself directly into democracy and the fast track to capitalism -- with economic bankruptcy as the result. (There are good reasons to be modestly paranoid here: Were the Western economic advisers to President Boris Yeltsin who proposed this approach really as innocent as they appeared? Or were they serving U.S. strategic interests by weakening Russia economically?)

这种说法,是否就是对于为何中国会采纳一条有别于俄罗斯模式的资本主义道路最好的回答呢?在俄罗斯,在共产主义崩溃以后,它们采取了“休克疗法”而直接进入民主制度以及通向资本主义的快速通道——当然,也伴随着经济上的破产。(在这里,我们有很好的理由去成为一个温和的偏执狂:那些向俄罗斯前总统叶利钦建言让其采纳“休克疗法”的西方经济学家是否就真的是如他们看起来的那样纯真呢?又或者说,他们是否服务于美国的利益而有心削弱俄罗斯的经济呢?)

China, on the other hand, has followed the path of Chile and South Korea in its passage to capitalism, using unencumbered authoritarian state power to control the social costs and thus avoid chaos. The weird combination of capitalism and Communist rule proved to be a blessing (not even) in disguise for China.

在另一方面,中国则采纳了之前智利和南韩的资本主义道路,使用毫无监管和约束的威权主义国家权力控制社会成本,从而避免社会骚乱。这种资本主义和共产主义离奇的结合对于中国来说,被证明是个伪装的幸福,甚至还不能算是个幸福。

The country has developed fast, not in spite of authoritarian rule, but because of it. With Stalinist-sounding paranoia, we are left to wonder, "Maybe those who worry about China's lack of democracy are actually worried that its fast development could make it the next global superpower, thereby threatening Western primacy."

中国之所以发展得如此地快,不是因为其脱离了威权主义的统治,相反,而是由于这种威权主义统治所带来的。假如我们用斯大林式貌似合理的偏执想法来思考的话,那么的确还有很多值得我们思考的问题,“那些担心中国缺乏民主的人,可能实际上是在担心中国的高速发展,从而形成一个新的全球超级力量,最终威胁到西方的利益。”

Today, the tragedy of the Great Leap Forward is repeating itself as a comedy. It has become the rapid capitalist Great Leap Forward into modernization, with the old slogan "iron foundry into every village" re-emerging as "a skyscraper into every street." The supreme irony of history is that Mao Zedong himself created the ideological conditions for rapid capitalist development. What was his call to the people, especially the young ones, in the Cultural Revolution? Don't wait for someone else to tell you what to do, you have the right to rebel! So think and act for yourselves, destroy cultural relics, denounce and attack not only your elders, but also government and party officials! Swipe away the repressive state mechanisms and organize yourself in communes!

今天,在中国,昔日“大跃进运动”的悲剧以一种喜剧的形式重新上演。它变成了一场高速地奔向现代化的资本主义大跃进运动,当年“大跃进运动”当中的口号“每个乡村都要有一个炼钢厂”如今变成了“每条街道上都要有一座摩天大楼”。但该段历史最大的讽刺却是毛泽东为资本主义的迅猛发展创造了意识形态上的条件。还记得毛泽东在“文化大革命”中说了什么,尤其是对青年人说了什么吗?不要等其他人告诉你你要去做什么,你有反抗的权利!所以,为自己去打算和行动吧,破坏文化遗迹,不仅要去谴责和攻击你的长辈,还包括政府和政党的领导人!推翻这种压迫人的体制吧,到在人民公社当中实现自我管理吧!

And Mao's call was heard. What followed was such an explosion of unrestrained passion to delegitimize all forms of authority that, at the end, Mao had to call in the army to restore order. The paradox is that the key battle during the Cultural Revolution was not between the Communist Party apparatus and the denounced traditionalist enemies, but between the Communist Party and the forces that Mao himself called into being.

很多人响应了毛泽东的号召。于是接下来就是一场无法压制的热情爆发,他们把所有形式的权力机构通通认为是不合法的,到了文化大革命的后期,毛泽东不得不召来军队恢复了社会秩序。这里面有一个重要的悖论,这不是一场发生在共产党机构和被谴责的传统主义敌人之间的重大战争,而是一场发生在共产党和被毛泽东所鼓动的那股力量之间的重大战争。

A similar dynamic is discernible in today's China. The Party resuscitates big ideological traditions in order to contain the disintegrative consequences of the capitalist explosion that the Party itself created. It is with this in mind that one should read the recent campaign in China to revive Marxism as an efficient state ideology. (Literally hundreds of millions of U.S. dollars are spent on this venture.)

而在今日中国,我们通过能够清晰地发现到仍旧存在着某种相似的力量。共产党重新激活了大型的意识形态传统,用它们来抑制共产党自己创造的资本主义高速发展所带来的分裂恶果。我们心中必须以下这一点:即最近中国开始了一场重新把马克思主义作为有效率的国家意识形态的运动。(从官方文件上,我们知道有数十亿美元将会用于这个计划上面。)

Those who see this as a threat to capitalist liberalization totally miss the point. Strange as it may sound, this return of Marxism is the sign of the ultimate triumph of capitalism, the sign of its full institutionalization. For example, China has taken recent legal measures to guarantee private property, a move that the West has hailed as a crucial step toward legal stability.

那些把这场复兴马克思主义的运动视为是一种对资本主义自由化威胁的人基本上是看错了。可能听起来会有点奇怪,实际上,这次马克思主义的回归的确是资本主义的最后胜利,是资本主义完全制度化的标志。举个例说,中国最近已经采取立法手段来保障私有产权,这一举动被西方国家赞其是迈向法律稳定性上的重要一步。

But what kind of Marxism is as appropriate for today's China? First, let's look at the difference between Marxism and Leftism. Leftism is a term that refers to any talk of workers' liberation -- from free trade unions to overcoming capitalism. But the Marxist thesis says that developing the forces of production is the key to social progress, and it is this type of Marxist development that fosters the conditions for the continuing fast "modernization."

但哪一类型的马克思主义最适合今天的中国呢?第一,先让我们来看一下马克思主义和左派之间的差别,左派指的是关于工人解放的一切言论——从自由组建工会到推翻资本主义。但马克思主义却认为发展生产力才是社会进步的关键,而正是这种类型的马克思主义的发展才能为持续而快速的“现代化”进程培养土壤。

In today's China, only the Communist Party's leading role can sustain rapid modernization. The official (Confucian) term is that China should become a "harmonious society."

在今天的中国,只有共产党的领导地位才能维持快速的现代化进程。而官方(儒家)的主题则是中国应该变成一个“和谐社会”。

To put it in old Maoist terms, the main enemy may appear to be the "bourgeois" threat. But, in the eyes of the ruling elite, the main enemies are instead the "principal contradiction" between unfettered capitalist development that the Communist Party rulers profit from and the threat of revolt by the workers and peasants.

把这一点放进旧的毛泽东主义里面去看,主要的敌人可能会是“资产阶级”的威胁。然而,在统治精英的眼中,主要的敌人已经发生了改变,其“主要矛盾”已经变成了“共产党领导人想要利用的不受约束的资本主义发展”与“工人和农民企图革命的威胁”这两者之间的矛盾。

Last year, the Chinese government strengthened some of its oppressive apparatuses -- including forming special units of riot police to crush popular unrest. These police are the actual social expression of what, in ideology, appears as a revival of Marxism. In 1905, Trotsky characterized tsarist Russia as "the vicious combination of the Asian knout [whip] and the European stock market." Doesn't this characterization still hold for modern-day China?

去年,中国政府加强了它某些具有压制性功能的机构的力量——包括成立特种防暴警察来压制民众的骚动。这些防暴警察的设置其实在意识形态上马克思主义的复兴落实到现实社会层面的一种表达。在1905年,托洛茨基就指出沙皇统治下俄罗斯的几个特征,包括“亚洲皮鞭与欧洲股票市场的残暴混合”。这一点,是否也能够概括今天中国的特征呢?

But what if the promised democratic second act that follows the authoritarian valley of tears never arrives? That is what is so unsettling about today's China: Its authoritarian capitalism may not be merely a remainder of our past but a portent of our future.

但是,假如在眼泪谷之后,威权主义国家没有迎来民主的第二波运动的话, 那怎么办呢?这就是为什么大家对于今天中国会感到如此不安的地方:它的威权资本主义不单单是我们过去的某个剩余物,还可能是我们未来的预兆。

Slavoj Žižek, a philosopher and psychoanalyst, is a senior researcher at the Institute for Advanced Study in the Humanities, in Essen, Germany. He is the author of, among many other books, The Fragile Absolute and Did Somebody Say Totalitarianism?

斯拉沃热·齐泽克,哲学家和精神分析师,德国埃森高级人文研究所的高级研究员。著有大量书籍,其中包括《易碎的绝对》以及《有没有人说过集权主义?》
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