Oct 24

by   

from KCET

For this week's guest editorial, Carlyn Aguilar offers her take on street art in Beijing, China, as a first-generation Mexican-American who grew up on the east side of Los Angeles. After living abroad for 10 years in London, Paris, Madrid, Rio de Janeiro and Mexico City, Aguilar realized that L.A. was where she wanted to be more than anywhere else.

She is currently a correspondent on Geoff Tuck's blog Notes On Looking. Carlyn received her BA in English from UCLA and her MA in Postmodernism: Literature and Contemporary Culture from the University of London. She also holds a postgraduate diploma from the London School of Journalism.

Right before leaving for China, several things were in my mind. First, the hearing of the mural ordinance had been postponed, so I witnessed the frustration of Los Angeles artists. Second, I went on a walking tour of the Arts District with the MCLA, led by Isabel Rojas-Williams, and couldn't believe that all of those incredible murals were made illegally. I also didn't realize how many international artists had come to L.A. to make murals here. That discovery made me realize how important L.A. is, not just in the world of contemporary art we find in galleries and museums, but also in the street.

I had seen Chinese artist Ma Yongfeng's work years ago at The Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, and so I was excited to meet him and learn more about his work in Beijing. Fortunately, I was able to attend the opening of a group show he was in at the Iberia Center for Contemporary Art in Asia's biggest art district, 798 Art Zone.

Yongfeng first came to international attention with his video "The Swirl" in 2002, in which six koi fish are literally swirled around a washing machine for an entire 15-minute wash cycle. And when the water begins to drain, I can't help but hold my breath. It's a tense and powerful piece, which makes a strong statement about China and the Chinese.

However, Yongfeng told me that his work has completely changed since then. For example, in 2009 Yongfeng started Forget Art, an independent organization of ongoing projects that radically play with institutions and events (such as exhibitions, art fairs, and street performances) and become social interventions in daily life. His work now deals with the social realities that surround him in China.

Sensibility is Under Control (2012) by Ma Yongfeng  I Courtesy of the Artist
Sensibility is Under Control (2012) by Ma Yongfeng I Courtesy of the Artist

 

His piece in the exhibition "Bernard Controls Project" (2012) is a large spray painted stenciled graffiti on recycled cardboard that reads "SENSIBILITY IS UNDER CONTROL". The piece comes from a project that Beijing-based Italian artist Alessandro Rolandi started, in which he invites artists to "stage interventions" for a two month period at Bernard Controls Asia.

Yongfeng's statement was randomly generated from talks between the artist and employees. The signs are meant to be a reflection of the working environment and the strict procedures the workers abide by. The stenciled messages seem to act as a reinterpretation of Mao's propaganda from industrial and revolutionary times that would be painted on factory walls for workers to see.

But rather than brain washing, Yongfeng's subtle graffiti raises questions and creates creative thinking about the environment the employees are in. "People should start with low-level resistance by doing minor things that engage people around them," explained Yongfeng.

When we walked around Caochangdi, Beijing's up-and-coming art district nearby 798 Art Zone, Yongfeng took me to where he had tagged the walls in the area: "Sensibility is Under Control", "Action is Thinking" and "No Compromise". All three had already been painted over, yet the messages were still clear -- if not clearer.

Ma Yongfeng with 'Sensibility is Under Control' painted over | Photo by Daniel Lara
Ma Yongfeng with 'Sensibility is Under Control' painted over | Photo by Daniel Lara

 

'No Compromise' by Ma Yongfeng painted over I Photo by Daniel Lara
'No Compromise' by Ma Yongfeng painted over I Photo by Daniel Lara

 

Yongfeng admires the work of China's most famous dissident artist Ai Weiwei, who also lives in Caochangdi. As we walked down the street to Ai Weiwei's house and studio, surveillance cameras filmed our every move. This didn't bother Yongfeng, as he has learned to push the limit and fight against the rules and regulations that hold back citizens from freedom of expression.

Unfortunately, what I found in Yongfeng's work I could not find elsewhere in China's art scene. I noticed that most of the artworks were not challenging and hardly oppositional. But I also understood that the artists who dare speak their minds against the government are also putting themselves at risk.

We can all remember that in 2011 Ai Weiwei was taken by the police and detained for three months. Nobody knew where he was or what was happening to him. Earlier that year the international community also saw him beaten and threatened after he created "Name List of Student Earthquake Victims Found by the Citizen Investigation" in 2008. Just by creating a list of the names of children who had died in the Sichuan earthquake and making it into public artworks and installations, the Chinese government decided to crackdown on his every action.

As I walked around looking for street art, I couldn't really find it, unless it was something commissioned. The walls near 798 Art Zone seemed artificial and an imitation of the West.

But as I hiked the Great Wall I did find some graffiti that spoke out against the government. I asked my Chinese friend why someone hadn't painted over it. She said that because we were in such a remote part of the Wall the officials probably hadn't even seen it.

Wall surrounding 798 Art Zone | Photo by Daniel Lara
Wall surrounding 798 Art Zone | Photo by Daniel Lara

 

When I got back to L.A. I couldn't help but think about the effects the mural moratorium had on our city. But I also noticed that artists were taking huge risks and still making murals illegally in the last ten years. I can't help but reflect back to the 1930s when David Alfaro Siqueiros, exiled from Mexico, dared to paint his opposition to Western imperialism on a wall in Olvera Street. In the center, there is an image of an indigenous man hanging from a cross with an American eagle peering down. In the corner, two revolutionaries aim their rifles at the national bird. City authorities immediately covered the mural and within a year whitewashed the infamous mural "América Tropical: Oppressed and Destroyed by Imperialism." In Jesus Treviño's documentary from 1971, Siqueiros explained, "América Tropical was a land of natives, of Indians, Creoles, of African-American men, all of the invariably persecuted and harassed by their respective governments."

Now we see the tables have turned, and Siqueiros' mural has been unveiled after conservation funded by the Getty and the City. A few days later the end of the mural moratorium began. Let's hope that the same will happen in China and that works by these dissident artists will also one day be resurrected. The Chicana in me is optimistic.

--Carlyn Aguilar

Tags:
Sep 13

研讨会

2012年9月14日16时
伊比利亚当代艺术中心,北京市朝阳区酒仙桥路4号798艺术区E06
中英(同声传译)
免费入场

由安德瑞妮·格勒策划的展览“改变的力量!美学与可持续性的探索”于2012年8月5日在北京伊比利亚当代艺术中心开幕。此展览由北京德国文化中心·歌德学院(中国)、伊比利亚当代艺术中心、海因里希·伯尔基金会、德国联邦文化基金会、德国国际合作机构(GIZ)以及德意志联邦共和国驻华大使馆联合主办。

展览期间,主办方举办了一系列专题活动,包括论坛“资源约束下的系统转型”、专题导览、电影放映和工作坊等。参观者不仅直观地体验到永续性的文化与美学维度,还得以认识到个人行动和自主参与对于可持续性发展的重要性。

2012年9月14日,“改变的力量!”将在伊比利亚当代艺术中心落下帷幕,歌德学院中国分院院长安德思先生以及德国国际合作机构(GIZ)驻华首席代表时沛迪博士将出席闭幕式及研讨会“资源:艺术”。会上,我们将与中国艺术家邢丹文、马永峰和王书刚一起,对展览进行回顾,评估它可能产生的影响,并探讨在面对环境问题和可持续性发展的挑战过程中,艺术所担当的角色。讨论话题包括:中国令人惊叹的城市化和经济增长背后不为人所见的是什么?在面对环境问题和生态危机的挑战过程中,艺术充当了如何的角色?艺术家如何理解可持续性发展?可持续性思考对艺术创作意味着什么?

主持

田霏宇 (Philip Tinari,尤伦斯当代艺术中心馆长)
作为中国和国际当代艺术界最为活跃的人士之一,田霏宇研究、撰写、出版了大量关于中国当代艺术的著作,并且策划了诸多极具代表性的展览。田霏宇曾担任著名双语艺术刊物《艺术界》的编辑总监及执行出版人。并且在《艺术论坛》进驻中国的项目中担任主要负责人。此外,田霏宇创立了独立编辑工作室“话坊”,进行了一系列关于中国当代艺术的出版、研究、翻译事务。田霏宇曾担任的工作还包括巴塞尔国际艺术博览会中国代表、香港苏富比拍卖中国当代艺术部学术咨询顾问、《艺术论坛》特约编辑、中央美术学院艺术批评客座教授等。田霏宇拥有哈佛大学的东亚研究硕士学位和杜克大学的文学学士学位,同时还是北京大学的傅尔布莱特学者。


嘉宾

邢丹文(参展艺术家)
2001年毕业于纽约视觉艺术学院,2001年受邀参加了首届横滨国际当代艺术双年展,2004年,受邀参加悉尼双年展。其作品被许多国际重要私人藏家、美术馆及艺术机构广泛收藏,诸如:瑞士著名藏家Uli Sigg,、瑞士银行、纽约的惠特尼和大都会美术馆、纽约国际摄影中心、洛杉矶盖缇美术馆、法国蓬皮杜现代美术馆、FNAC法国国家艺术收藏、伦敦维多利亚美术馆、新加坡美术馆、中国美术馆等等。

马永峰(参展艺术家)
1976年生于山西,现居北京。曾在站台中国和英国ArtSway举办过个展,主要群展包括2006年在纽约PS1当代艺术中心举办的《13:中国当代录像》。其他主要展览的地点为洛杉矶当代美术馆、波恩美术馆、南安普顿大学美术馆、都灵Fondazione Sandrettore Rebaudengo和维也纳的Kunstverein Baden。马永峰的早期的艺术实践主要是录像和摄影,现在的作品更多是关于事件和情境,他的目标是发起一系列的自我组织化的项目,寻求直接和社会相关的实践。目前正在运作的一个持续性的项目叫作Forget Art,具有灵活多变的特征,包括展览、艺博会、游击性干预、社交媒体以及街头政治的应用等等,但是马的策略在于微妙的介入到机制之中,注入新的概念和方法,并将其运用到他的社会实践和抵抗之中。

王书刚 
1960生于北京。1980—1985年毕业于中央美术学院雕塑系,现在德国和北京两地生活,工作。个展:1991年史地勒画廊,多特蒙得,德国;1992年城市图书馆画廊, 埃森,德国;1993年海尔里西画廊,多特蒙得,德国;1994年城市画廊,保贝克城堡,埃森;1995年德国亚洲基金会;1997年格鲁伽公园,埃森;1998年马勒现代雕塑艺术博物馆,马勒,德国;1999年该思克森国立现代艺术博物馆,德国;1999年沙芬毫森现代艺术中心,瑞士。
近年群展包括:2002年,头,沙芬毫森现代艺术中心,瑞士;2003年,左手与右手,中德艺术展,大山子艺术区(DAD, 798工厂),北京;2003年,另一种现代性,犀锐艺术中心,北京;2003年,江画廊,亚特兰大,美国;2004年,罗达利俱乐部,伯林,波茨坦;2004年,大山子国际艺术节, 大子艺术区(DAD, 798工厂),北京;2004年,亚洲现代艺术展, 博洛尼亚现代艺术博物馆, 意大利;2004年,派对-苏州河,东廊画廊,上海;2004年,奇怪, 达事乐画廊,柏林,德国;2005年,重复,乔治亚洲当代艺术博物馆,美国;2005年,大山子国际艺术节, 大子艺术区(DAD, 798工厂),北京;2005年,透明的盒子,建外SOHO,北京。


主办方介绍

德国国际合作机构(GIZ)是一家联邦企业,其服务遍布全球,致力于推动可持续发展领域的国际合作和专业培训。GIZ在中国开展中德技术合作已近30年,工作旨在推动符合中德两国利益和意愿的发展合作。GIZ尤为荣幸能够支持“改变的力量!”在中国的展览。

北京德国文化中心·歌德学院(中国)是德意志联邦共和国在世界范围内从事文化交流活动的文化机构。歌德学院北京分院成立于1988年。自建院以来,我们一方面致力于德语在中国的传播与运用,另一方面积极广泛地从事德中两国在文化领域内的交流与合作。我们根植于开放的德国社会和德国文化土壤,借助于我们所拥有的跨国文化方面的专业力量,多年来与中方合作伙伴在音乐、戏剧、舞蹈、电影、艺术、建筑等众多领域内组织了大量的文化活动。

Sep 10
2012年的上午艺术空间的青年策展人合作项目邀请了策展人黄乐。
9月8日,下午5点到8点。邀请您来

九月蠢事 —— Conscious Folly 

九月蠢事鈥斺 <wbr>Conscious <wbr>Folly <wbr>2012青年策展人项目


参展艺术家:姜鹏、廖斐、刘辛夷、马永峰、双飞艺术中心、宋拓、唐狄鑫 
策展人:黄乐

开幕时间:2012年9月8日,星期六,17:00 
展览时间:2012年9月9日至10月21日
展览地址:上海 静安区 奉贤路 50号B (近石门二路)

小说《1984》在20129月停在了第139页,“蠢事啊,蠢事!自觉的、无缘无故的、自招灭亡的蠢事!XX可能犯的罪中,数这罪是最不容易隐藏的。”

作为不易被消化的自然人,这些艺术家制造的东西也是难啃的,就像温斯特警醒发觉却一步步躬亲就范的“蠢事”。不论他们是否具备某种参与社会政治的理论或策略,甚至不确定他们是否会将预先谋划,但这些艺术家们的行动、语言和状态已经暴露了他们的倾向和愿望。然而,面对现实的蠢事,“艺术的蠢事”仅是一种修辞。艺术史已经简明有效地完成了对这种“修辞”的分析和分类,当一切都可归作某种“艺术家传奇”、或边缘文化材料时,艺术中的自寻烦恼、徒劳无功、伴随着伤害和非议的等等也可以被阐释成审美的形式和某种才华天赋,“蠢事”就这样被消化了。

“九月”就是现在,但随即也将成为过去,像射线一般的轨迹。“九月蠢事”是以“有意而为的蠢事”之名进行的一场集中预演。展览仅是一次短暂临时的聚集,来自北京、上海、杭州、广州的参展艺术家及艺术家组合以各自的方式投入,在既有的语法和形式中,以“蠢事”为方式也许本身就是作茧自缚的限定,正基于此,蠢事开始发生。置之事外地观看蠢事,或许与观看滑稽剧无异,末了,抱以鼓掌感叹,“噢!你真笨;谢谢你,就因为你是个笨蛋!”;而从艺术的内部,当然,并不存在“置之事外”与“艺术之内”的简单二元,以“温斯特式”的蠢事为契机是一种策略,这是一个试探倾向、明晰自性的过程。



“九月蠢事”就是一桩漫无边际的蠢事,在这之前,让我们向曾义无反顾办了蠢事的前辈们致敬;与此同时,我们向在其他各战线忙活着蠢事的亲们问好。“九月蠢事”9月8日下午5点至8点,自寻烦恼、徒劳无功、破绽百出的蠢事,就在上午艺术空间。

在这里一定要提醒大家的是,展览里呀真没有“蠢事”。双飞兄弟们从北京、杭州赶来上海汇合,因为他们日夜惦记着仓库里一批优秀的艺术作品——它们出自默默无闻的杰出艺术家之手,却只能放在暗无天日的小房间里。双飞艺术中心表示他们不能坐视不管,要尽自己的绵薄之力为这批作品争取应得的机会。展览开幕5点至7点间,上午艺术空间将直播双飞艺术中心这一旷世之举的全过程,他们会成功吗?那些传奇的艺术作品将会迎来出头之日吗?届时,让我们共同关注。
 
唐狄鑫估计是要给自己在这酷暑制造一个绝对纳凉方案。从“卧轨”到“背着石头下河”,从《我马上回来》到《飞》,对他时隐时现的接近危险、和身体本能极限的欲望,让人不得不揣测:唐对恐惧、疼痛的忍耐能力是否高于常人?但在此次展览上,唐狄鑫也不再干“蠢事”啦,他还好好地让自己凉快了一把。
 
刘辛夷自述他“感兴趣于当代条件下的政治体验,观察其中的逻辑困境,开展对政治常识的创造性考察”,如果说刘辛夷今年6月在空白空间个展“探员L”呈现的是一份来自异空间的地球政治调查报告,那么,近期L的工作又有哪些新进展呢?9月,他将新鲜出炉两份展现当代国际政治关系的新材料,这两个看似微不足道的日常一瞥得来实在不易。
 
雷州青年宋拓,出自公务员家庭,前段时间他创作了好几件关于公务员的作品。他以个体方式深入公务员方方面面,终于为我们探得诸如公务员的形象法则、公务员的小秘密等让人唏嘘的独家资料。尽管没能成为公务员组织中的一员,宋拓在精神情怀上无疑已经不是公务员胜是公务员了。今年,他为北京市国子监胡同居民评选了十大优秀医生排行榜,便民惠民。此次展览,他将与我们分享一个可能成功保卫了广州城市公共安全的优秀事迹案例。
 
马永峰原本已经具有某种成熟的摄影和录像艺术家面貌,2009年他发起了一个以“游击性介入”项目为基础的机构——Forget Art, 而他也开始了另一种方式的个人创作。他一方面保持业余性的创作状态,施行了一批以情境为媒介的“微干预”项目;另一方面马永峰的活动关注整体环境,具有某种独立的社会性。经过反复试验,此次,他将在上午艺术空间这个独特的地下室,为不久前发生在北京的一次灾难创造一个纪念的形式。
 
姜鹏无时不在推敲着“语言、主体、权力”,谈话还没开始他就要先强调一番“我”的代表者,这样谈话才会生效,往往每一次的“我”都不尽相同。没人知道他颠覆语言的权力之后语言将是什么。姜鹏还是一个两岁孩子的爸爸,在陪同孩子认知学习这个世界的过程中他越发觉察到人的主体意志的形成与“囚禁”。展览上姜鹏设计了一款文字游戏《Word Search》,在能辨识某些单词的前提下进入游戏,search行为与知识的关系将在找到答案之后被怀疑。
 
廖斐竟然对物质抱有疑问:物质真的只是物质吗?物质真的无关于意识、无关于其他的事物吗?廖斐在胡塞尔曾做过的一个证明所有事物是一个整体的简单推理中,竟体验到这个论证充满轻巧的美感,他说,恐怕物质也远比我们所能想象的极限更加的轻盈吧。展厅中,他在一堆煤球上插了一根灯管,然后,灯管亮了。
 
“蠢事啊!蠢事!自觉地、无缘无故的蠢事!”
 
最后还需特别提醒的是,这个展览里满满当当的都是蠢事。自寻烦恼的、徒劳无功的、伴随着伤害和非议的、破绽百出的比比皆是,然而查看这些蠢事的事由和过程,往往比其他安全的素材更让我们亲近中国的当代。“九月蠢事”即将展开,在这之前,让我们向曾经义无反顾办了蠢事的前辈们致敬,并向在其他地方忙活着办蠢事的朋友们表示问候;如果你遇到冒着傻气还散发着光芒的艺术家,不妨告诉他,“噢!你真笨;谢谢你,就因为你是个笨蛋!
Aug 25
by An Xiao on August 24, 2012
from HYPERALLERGIC

“I want to feel the sun on my skin,” a slogan artist Ma Yongfeng pulled from conversations with workers at Bernard Controls Beijing.


LOS ANGELES — The image of the Chinese manufacturing plant is quickly becoming a 21st century icon of production, just as the car plants of Fordism were in the 20th century and Victorian coal mines were during the Industrial Revolution. They’re frequently portrayed as sites of high efficiency, but rarely as spaces for art, humanity and wonder.


In 2010, Beijing-based Italian artist Alessandro Rolandi staged a series of interventions in a Beijing factory run by Frenchman Guillaume Bernard. These well-received interventions have now become a curated series of invitationals to local artists.


“After several intense and spontaneous conversations about the nature of work, capitalism, human development, corporate structure, radical art, future and creativity,” Rolandi explained over email. “I designed a program that invites every two months one artist/designer/architect/musician to intervene in the factory in a subtle but radical way to stimulate discussion, raise questions and confront the reality of work with a different angle, straight on the field, without any mediation.”


Determined that should be predominantly experimental in nature, Rolandi still drew a strong connection to his goal of tying the work to labor: “We invented a definition using enterprise language to give legitimacy to the project and make it understandable (at least its general nature) to people working in companies,” he noted. And so the name of the project was born: Social Sensibility R&D Program, situated at Bernard Controls Asia.


The work has become embedded in the, well, work of the factory. Take Ma Yongfeng‘s series of spray painted slogans. “The owner now uses his sentence sprayed on the wall ‘INVEST IN CONTRADICTION’ as the first thing to be discussed in  job-interviews with new employees,” Rolandi points out. “Workers and managers had mixed feelings about the tags and felt all in need to discuss them.”


The stencils themselves are re-interpretations of Chinese propaganda, lifted from conversations with workers and reflective of the strict systems of control.


Rolandi also noted the effort of Lulu Li to provide ambient music for workers. “Even in Europe in most factories, listening to music is now forbidden for various reasons, from safety to concentration, and here we tried with these small devices and rhytmic compositions from classical to experimental to noise (avoiding words, as they are proved to affect concentration),” he says. After a series of negotiations with floor managers, Li and Rolandi agreed to only play music on Fridays, at least for the moment.


There’s a tension to the idea that the artists, at the behest of top brass, can move around freely and explore interventions, while the workers themselves must remain in optimal flow under the strict rules enforced and determined by the very same management. The artists of the Social Sensibility R&D Program are not oblivious to this.


“Our interventions must be conceived in order to interact with the physicality of the area and with the conceptual codification of the signs and of the different working sections,” Rolandi said. “Timing is also very important as precise schedules define the rhythm and the flows. ”


Beijing-based art critic Edward Sanderson, who visited the plant, had this to say about the space in a terrific review in Artslant:

This particular factory is unlike the cliché of a Chinese factory: you won’t find thousands of workers performing mundane and repetitive tasks over long conveyor belts in an airless hanger. This factory is relatively small, with about a hundred staff, of whom only twenty to thirty actually work on assembling the product. The work areas are also relatively discrete in terms of their interior design. Rolandi says it’s not an environment where you feel you have no way out, where everything is under surveillance. But at the same time, “No matter how you look at it, it’s still a factory.”

Sanderson goes on to explore Rolandi’s own initiation into the workers’ lives by undergoing the training procedures and entering the world of high-efficiency production, as well as some of the questions he wrestled with. It calls to mind some of the work done by Cao Fei with factory workers in southern China, where the majority of the manufacturing sector is concentrated. Her PRD Anti-Heroes and Whose Utopia project looked at types of similar work.


Unlike Sanderson, I’ve not seen the interventions in person, so I can’t comment on their merits per se. But seeing the videos and speaking with the artists, I find that what makes Social Sensibility interesting is Rolandi’s choice to invite artists to stage interventions in two-month phases. The in and out of the artists over time reflects the rhythms of factory life, and the diversity of perspectives allows for a certain freshness to each intervention.


The turnover of the creative people,” said Rolandi, “is designed to provide a constant tension around the next new ‘intruder’, his proposal and the way it will be received and dealt with, and prevent habit and comfort to settle in.”


The Social Sensibility R&D Program is an ongoing project at Bernard Controls Beijing (A2-1, Lidaxing Industrial Zone, No.15, Fourth JingHai Road, Economic & Technological Development Area, Beijing).



Aug 14

“一个幽灵,在全球徘徊”,使我们感到身处在一个亟需改变的临时世界,便预备诸般理论,行出各种实践,以迎接它在冥冥之中的降临。但,对于这幽灵的身份与性质,却又无人说得明白,有人将它视作某种经典理念的重临,因我们所面对的也是与往昔相仿的“世纪初危机”;而也有人认为它是一路我们尚未认识的新力量,正在这世上疾速游荡,寻找着可以附体的所在——“它后面留下的声音/直到许多年后/才把我们从梦中惊醒”(辛波斯卡《致友人》)。

本月初在伊比利亚当代艺术中心开幕的展览“改变的力量!美学与可持续性的探索”便可视作为这幽灵提供受体的一次尝试。展览最初于2010年在柏林开幕,之后在欧、亚多个城市巡回,此番来京,又有几位本土艺术家加入其中。来自德国的策展人安德瑞妮•格勒(Adrienne Goehler)毕生作为德国政坛活跃人物,与德国绿党(Green Party)颇有过从,展览也便带上极浓的环保主义色彩——从约瑟夫•博伊斯于1982年与卡塞尔市民共同完成的《7000株橡树》到罗伯特•史密森在前工业用地实施的大地艺术作品《螺旋防波堤》,从柯内莉亚•黑塞-霍内格(Cornelia Hesse-Honegger)对核电站附近变异昆虫的考察,到松坂亚由美(Ayumi Matsuzaka)用自己的排泄物制作肥料,用这些肥料种植蔬菜,再吃掉这些蔬菜,而后再收集排泄物制作肥料的反复循环,再到The Yes Men“盗版”《纽约时报》,发布“伊拉克战争已结束”、“国家健康保险法案通过”等假新闻进行的社会干预,无不体现着绿党的四大理念:生态永继,草根民主,社会正义,世界和平。

鲍里斯•格罗伊斯(Boris Groys)在《项目之孤独(The Loneliness of the Project)》一文中指出,在过去的20年里,占据艺术舞台中心的并非艺术作品(artwork),而是艺术项目(art project)。我们的注意力从完成的“艺术产品”转向那不以结果为导向的“艺术项目中的生活”,展览也不再聚焦于作为审美静观对象的艺术作品,而是展示对艺术项目的记录(documentation,或称文献)。我们所见的,依然是艺术惯用的媒介:绘画、摄影、录像和装置,其功能却由“表现”转为“记录”,并严重依赖文字说明——“不再有真正可见和可呈现的艺术,艺术都是缺席或隐藏的”。文中还谈到记录的过程总是会导致记录本身与被记录之事件的不一致,并将僵死的、官僚化的档案和记录视为鲜活的生活/生命之敌,或生活/生命的“遗容面模(dead mask)”,这也是“改变的力量!”一类展览面对的困境或僵局——比如乌苏拉•舒尔茨-多恩堡(Ursula Schulz-Dornburg)在自然/文化史层面对小麦的多样性进行的调研,丰饶的生命历史和富杂的调研过程不得不缩影为一墙照片和几株小麦标本。古德隆•F•韦德洛克(Gudrun F. Widlok)的项目打破富有的西方人给贫困的非洲人施舍的经济关系,在《收养(Adopted)》中,与家庭脱离联系的欧洲人被非洲教父收养——整个项目由艺术家的假想变为小有影响的现实的行动过程长期而微妙,却只能被浓缩在一个充满照片、档案、书信和地图的静止的办公室空间之内。詹尼弗•阿罗拉&吉勒莫•卡萨迪利亚(Jennifer Allora & Guillermo Calzadilla)对特定地区的生态史进行的考察被剪辑为很短的录像作品,飘浮、随机的影像是否是对一个项目乃至一个地区的现实的有效、负责的呈现,也是许多同类作品遭遇的争议所在。

同时,在全球化的广阔环境中,这些记录是我们与其所记录的现实之间的唯一纽带。我们没有机会去经历如此庞杂的现实情境,逐一验证这些记录的确切性和真实性,而只能凭着直觉来选择是否“相信”。其中,完美、专业、个人化的记录方式都更易被视作艺术家精心编排的结果,比如奥拉维尔•埃利亚松(Olafur Eliasson)使两个非洲黑人小孩坐在粗壮的树枝上,幸福地手捧他以节约能源之名制作的“小太阳”,便颇有摆拍和殖民视角之嫌。杨少斌基于矿业调查项目的作品《X-后视盲区》在当年也曾被讥为“艺术煤老板”。反之,漫不经心的拍摄/剪辑方式和默默无闻的处世风格也成为提升项目“真诚度”的当代策略。

在启蒙时代,一个知识分子有能力去亲自验证几乎所有的科学新发现,科学与理性和经验的联系密切而健康。如今,就普通人而言,验证每一种新的发现和自然科学观念都需要极为特殊的知识、技术、设备、资源、时间、人力和财力,科学便更多与非理性、直觉和信仰相关。环保主义如今也面对这种“相信”之难,“地球一小时”和“垃圾分类”等主流公益项目的合理性不断遭受质疑,甚至“全球变暖”也被一些学者斥为惊天骗局,是科学家与“利益集团社会”联手所为——我们手无证据,或只靠主观的“相信”与否来选择站队,或对一切都持孤绝的怀疑主义。在当代,我们身处的世界重又成为不可知的,成为专业人士和利益集团独享的秘密,如格罗伊斯在《真诚之生产(The Production of Sincerity)》中所言:“在从前我们有自然与上帝之处,如今我们有设计和阴谋论。”——在不可证实的时代,环保主义也自无法幸免于关乎设计和阴谋论的信任危机。马永峰在京郊伯纳德控制设备工厂进行的涂鸦“Sensibility Is Under Control(感觉在控制之下)”被置于展厅末端的院子里,极好地道出这种呈现/认知遭遇的当代尴尬,笼罩着每一件作品。

展览的英/德文标题并非“改变的力量”,而是“Examples to Follow”,即“可供追随的个案”。策展人认为,在哥本哈根与坎昆举行的气候峰会(“除了妥协什么都没有达成”)体现了官方的无能,个人的行动力便显得尤为紧要,上述困境便也不再是止步牌。展览重视当代涌现的、自发的“可持续”项目经验,作为我们可借鉴于生活的种种微模式,并抵消“环保主义”与“可持续”两词长期遭受的滥用和政治正确化之名——无论这些项目能否树立典范,或是作为临时的解决方案,或仅为一种干预,唤起观者对某问题的重视。“改变的力量!”不保证一个更好的未来(“更好的未来”是质疑一切替代性实践的必杀术),甚至原创性也不再是必要的条件——莎拉•刘易森与杰•布朗(Sarah Lewison & Jay Brown)那稍嫌小清新的作品《呼吸(BREATHE)》便毫不掩饰对玛塔-克拉克(Matta-Clark)“新鲜空气车”的模仿——或许,对策展人来说,这所有项目都可简单视作对约瑟夫•博伊斯《7000株橡树》个案之理念的模仿和追随。

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